The line endings of a fish, elongated or shortened as the space required, and the grinning expression on the fish emblem have in some book circles given these German Psalters the nickname 'Laughing Carp' Psalters. The fish, as is well known, was one of the earliest and most common symbols from Christ. An early acrostic, IESOUS CHRISTOS THEOU HUIOUS SOTER (Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior), is based on the letters in the Greek word for fish, ICHTUS. The lozenge heads on top of many of the vertical pen strokes are characteristic of German manuscripts. If not German, the manuscript may be English or French.